Over the course of the last years the tooling for AEM development improved a lot. While some years ago there was hardly an IDE integration available, today we have dedicated tools for Eclipse and IntelliJ (https://helpx.adobe.com/experience-manager/6-4/sites/developing/using/aem-eclipse.html). Also packaging and validation support was poor, today we have the opensourced filevault and tools like oakpal (thanks Marc!)
But with SlingMocks we also have much better unittest tooling (thanks a lot to Stefan Seifert and the Sling people), so we much more and better/easier tooling than just Mockito and Powermock. SlingContext (and its extension AemContext) allows you create unit tests quite easily. Using them can help you get rid of mocking Sling Resources, repo access and many things more.
On top of that, SlingMock can easily work with the new OSGI r6 annotations, which allow you to define OSGI properties in Pojos. Mocking the @ObjectClassDefinition classes isn’t that easy, because they are essentially annotations …
To illustrate that, I have created a minimal demo with a servlet and testcases for it (source code at Github). Basically the functionality of the class itself is not relevant for this article, but we want to focus on aspects how you utilize the frameworks best to avoid boilerplate code.
The code is quite simple, but to make unittesting a bit more challenging, it uses the new OSGI r6 annotations for OSGI configuration (using the @Designate and the @ObjectClassDefinition annotations) plus a referenced service.
If you try to mock the ReplicationServlet.Config class the naive way, you will find out, that it’s an annotation, which is referenced in the activate() method. I always failed to mock it somehow, so I switched gear and started to use SlingMock for it. (I don’t want to say that it is not possible, but it’s definitly not straight-foward, and in my opinion writing unit-tests should be straight forward, otherwise they are not created at all.)
With SlingMocks the approach changes. I am not required to create mocks, but SlingMocks provides a mocked OSGI runtime we can use. That means, that we create the OSGI parameters as a map to tell the SlingContext object to register our service with these parameters (line 59).
Because SlingContext implements quite a bit of the OSGI semantics, it also requires that all referenced services are available (if these are static references). Therefor I use Mockito to mock the Replicator and I register the mock to provide the Replicator service. In realworld I could verify the interactions of my servlet with that mock.
This basic example illustrates how you can use SlingMocks to avoid a lot of mocking and stubbing. This example does not utilize the full power of SlingMocks yet, we are just scratching at the surface. But we already have some benefit : If you switch from SCR annotations to OSGI annotations, your SlingMock unittests don’t need any change, because it provides an OSGI-like environment, and there the way how metatypes are generated and injected are abstracted away.